Pearl Gourami Care Guide: Tank Mates, Size, Breeding, and More

Pearl Gourami Care Guide

The Pearl Gourami, or Trichopodus leerii, is a captivating freshwater fish known for its shimmering pearl-like speckles. As one of the most striking and graceful inhabitants of many aquariums, it’s no wonder this species has gained immense popularity among fish enthusiasts.

Why is Pearl Gouramis so popular in the aquarium hobby?

Beyond their enchanting appearance, Pearl Gouramis are prized for their hardiness and adaptability, making them ideal for beginners and expert aquarists. Their unique labyrinth organ allows them to gulp air from the surface, and their peaceful nature further solidifies their status as a beloved aquarium staple.

As we journey through this guide, we’ll uncover the essentials of caring for these aquatic jewels, ensuring they remain a vibrant centrepiece in your tank.

Background Information

Origin and Native Habitat

The Pearl Gourami hails from the warm, freshwater swamps and peat bogs of Southeast Asia, predominantly found in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. These fish naturally thrive in densely vegetated waters with a slow current, offering them plenty of hiding spots and making them adept at maneuvering through thick plant life. Their native habitat is often slightly acidic and soft due to decomposing plant matter, which can be an important consideration for recreating their environment in captivity.

Historical Significance in the Aquarium Trade

The introduction of the Pearl Gourami to the aquarium trade dates back several decades. Their distinct appearance, resilience, and relatively easy care quickly made them a sought-after species among early aquarists. Over the years, their popularity has only grown, and they have become an iconic symbol of tropical freshwater aquariums. Their ability to adapt to various water conditions and coexist peacefully with other species further contributed to their widespread appeal in the trade. Today, they remain one of the staple fish for those looking to add a touch of exotic elegance to their aquariums.

Pearl Gourami Physical Characteristics

Pearl Gourami Care Guide

Description of Appearance and Notable Features

The Pearl Gourami is truly a sight to behold. Its slender and laterally compressed body is adorned with myriad shimmering white spots resembling pearls—hence its name. These iridescent spots cover the body and fins, creating a mesmerising pattern against a silvery-blue backdrop. The male, particularly during breeding periods, showcases a more vibrant orange-red throat and belly, distinguishing him from the usually paler-coloured female. Both sexes have two distinct dorsal fins: a soft portion and a spiky, thread-like extension known as “feelers” or “whiskers” to sense their environment.

Size and Lifespan in Captivity

In a well-maintained aquarium, the Pearl Gourami typically grows to an average size of about 4 to 5 inches in length. These fish have lived up to 5 to 8 years in captivity with proper care. Their size and longevity make them a long-term commitment for aquarists and provide ample time to appreciate their beauty and observe their behaviours truly.

Housing and Tank Requirements

Recommended Tank Size

For the Pearl Gourami to flourish, it’s recommended that they be housed in a tank of at least 30 gallons. This provides ample space to swim and explore, ensuring they don’t feel cramped. If you plan to keep a group, consider increasing the tank size accordingly, with an additional 10 gallons for every new fish.

Water Parameters: pH, Temperature, Hardness

  • pH: Pearl Gouramis prefer slightly acidic to neutral water. Aim for a pH level between 6.0 and 7.5.
  • Temperature: These tropical beauties thrive in warm waters. Maintain a consistent temperature between 77°F (25°C) and 82°F (28°C).
  • Hardness: They are somewhat adaptable but ideally prefer soft to moderately hard water. A general hardness (dGH) range of 4 to 12 is best.

Substrate and Decoration Preferences

Pearl Gouramis appreciate a tank that mirrors their natural habitat. Opt for a fine, dark substrate, which not only mimics their native peat bogs and swamps but also accentuates their shimmering colours. Introduce live plants generously, especially those that reach the surface, like water wisteria or hornwort, providing them with the shaded spots they favour. Driftwood and caves or shelters will offer a sense of security and replicate the densely vegetated waters they are accustomed to.

Lighting and Filtration Needs

Lighting: Pearl Gouramis are relatively relaxed when it comes to lighting. Moderate lighting levels are ideal, and if you’re using live plants, ensure the light spectrum supports plant growth. But remember, they appreciate some shaded areas, so stay moderate.

Filtration: Good filtration is crucial, but these fish aren’t fans of strong currents. Opt for a filter that provides efficient biological and mechanical filtration without creating a powerful water flow. Using a sponge filter or an adjustable output filter can be beneficial to strike the right balance.

Crafting an ideal environment based on these requirements will ensure your Pearl Gouramis are healthy and allow their radiant beauty and intriguing behaviours to shine through.

Diet and Nutrition

Types of Food Suitable for Pearl Gourami

Pearl Gouramis are omnivores, displaying a healthy appetite for various foods. Here are some of their preferred choices:

  • Flake and Pellet Foods: High-quality flake or pellet foods designed for tropical freshwater fish form a good base for their diet. These commercial foods are nutritionally balanced and can cater to their essential dietary needs.
  • Live Foods: Brine shrimp, daphnia, and bloodworms are excellent live food choices that provide the necessary protein.
  • Frozen and Freeze-dried Foods: These are convenient alternatives to live foods. Bloodworms, tubifex, and other aquatic invertebrates are available in frozen or freeze-dried formats and are well-liked by Pearl Gouramis.
  • Vegetables: Occasionally, you can offer blanched vegetables like zucchini, lettuce, or spinach. These greens cater to their plant-based dietary cravings and offer additional vitamins.

Importance of a Varied Diet

While it might seem convenient to stick to one type of food, a varied diet is crucial for Pearl Gouramis. Alternating between different food sources ensures they receive a comprehensive range of nutrients, mimicking their diverse diet in the wild. It also helps prevent nutritional deficiencies, boosts their immune system, and can enhance their vibrant colours.

Feeding Frequency and Portion Control

Pearl Gouramis should be fed once or twice daily. It’s crucial to avoid overfeeding, which can lead to water quality issues and health problems for the fish. A good rule of thumb is to provide only what they can consume within 2-3 minutes. Observing their eating habits will help you adjust the portion size to meet their needs. Remember, smaller, more frequent feedings are often better than larger, infrequent ones.

By understanding and catering to the dietary needs of Pearl Gouramis, you not only ensure their health and longevity but also get to observe their active and engaging feeding behaviours.

Behavior and Compatibility

Pearl Gourami Mates

Typical Behavior and Temperament

Pearl Gouramis are generally peaceful and somewhat shy fish. They often spend time meandering through plants and exploring their surroundings with their thread-like “feelers.” While they can be a bit territorial, especially during breeding times, they are not overly aggressive.

One fascinating aspect of their behaviour is their ability to gulp air from the water’s surface. Thanks to their labyrinth organ, which acts like a lung, they can extract oxygen from the air—a trait they share with other gouramis.

Suitable Tank Mates and Potential Conflicts

Given their calm demeanour, Pearl Gouramis can coexist with various tank mates. Some suitable companions include:

  • Small schooling fish like tetras, rasboras, and danios.
  • Calm bottom dwellers such as Corydoras catfish and loaches.
  • Other peaceful gourami species, though monitoring for territorial disputes is essential.

However, avoid keeping them with fin-nipping species like some barbs or overly aggressive fish, as the Pearl Gourami’s long feelers can become a target. Larger, more dominant species might also intimidate and stress them, so choose tank mates thoughtfully.

Breeding Behavior and Requirements

Breeding Pearl Gouramis is an intriguing process. The male builds a bubble nest using plant debris and bubbles he produces. Once the nest is ready, he’ll try to attract a female by displaying his vibrant colours and engaging in dance-like behaviour.

Upon acceptance, the female will release her eggs, which the male fertilises. He then carefully places the fertilised eggs in the bubble nest. After spawning, removing the female is a good practice, as the male becomes protective of the nest and might see her as a threat.

For a higher success rate, provide a separate breeding tank with shallow, slightly acidic water and a temperature slightly warmer than usual (around 82°F or 28°C). After hatching, the fry can be fed infusoria or finely crushed flake food.

Understanding the behaviour and compatibility of Pearl Gouramis is vital in ensuring a harmonious tank environment. You pave the way for a vibrant, healthy, and interactive aquarium experience by accommodating their needs and preferences.

Pearl Gourami Breeding Guide

Breeding Pearl Gouramis can be a rewarding endeavour for any aquarist. Following specific steps and ensuring the right conditions can increase the likelihood of a successful breeding experience.

Signs of Readiness for Breeding

Before setting up a breeding environment, it’s essential to identify if your Pearl Gouramis are ready to breed:

  1. Colouration: Males typically exhibit brighter colours when ready to breed, especially around the throat and belly areas.
  2. Behaviour: Males may become more active, displaying dance-like movements to attract females. They may also build a bubble nest at the water’s surface, indicating breeding readiness.
  3. Physical Changes: Females will appear fuller or more rounded when carrying eggs.

Setting Up a Breeding Tank

  1. Tank Size: A 10 to 20-gallon tank is usually sufficient for breeding.
  2. Water Conditions: Slightly acidic water (pH of 6.0-7.0) and a temperature slightly warmer than usual, around 82°F (28°C), can induce spawning. Soft water is also preferable.
  3. Tank Setup: Use fine-leafed or floating plants to support the bubble nest. A sponge filter can ensure gentle filtration without disturbing the nest.
  4. Shallow Water: Reducing the water level to about 6-8 inches can make it easier for the male to manage the bubble nest.

Care of Eggs and Fry

  1. Post-Spawning: The male will place the eggs into the bubble nest after spawning. Removing the female at this stage is advisable as the male may become aggressive, guarding the nest.
  2. Protecting the Eggs: The male will diligently guard the nest, ensuring the eggs remain within. If any fallout, he will pick them up and place them back.
  3. Hatching: Eggs will typically hatch within 24-36 hours. Once hatched, the fry will remain in the bubble nest for another 2-3 days until they become free-swimming.
  4. Feeding the Fry: Initially, the fry will feed off their yolk sacs. Once they start free swimming, you can feed them infusoria or liquid fry food. Transition them to freshly hatched brine shrimp and then crushed flakes as they grow.
  5. Water Quality: Regular water changes and gentle filtration are crucial at this stage. Clean water will reduce the risk of fry succumbing to diseases.

Breeding Pearl Gouramis is a journey of patience and care. By understanding their needs and ensuring a conducive environment, you can witness the beautiful lifecycle of these shimmering fish. Maintaining their health and well-being will pave the way for future generations of radiant Pearl Gouramis in your aquarium as the fry grows.

Potential Health Concerns

Common Diseases and Their Symptoms

Pearl Gouramis, like all aquarium fish, can be susceptible to various diseases if not properly cared for. Here are some common ailments:

  • Ich (White Spot Disease):
    • Symptoms: Small white spots on the body, fins, and gills, akin to grains of salt. Fish may rub against objects due to itching.
    • Treatment: Increase the tank temperature gradually to 86°F (30°C) for a few days, and use over-the-counter ich treatments.
  • Fin Rot:
    • Symptoms: Fins appear ragged, discoloured or have white edges. In advanced stages, fins may disintegrate.
    • Treatment: Clean the tank and remove any decaying matter. Use commercially available fin rot treatments.
  • Dropsy:
    • Symptoms: The fish’s body swells, and its scales stand out, giving a pine-cone-like appearance.
    • Treatment: Dropsy is often a symptom of internal issues, and the prognosis can be grim. Isolate the affected fish and treat them with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  • Gill Parasites:
    • Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, reduced appetite, fish remains near the water surface, and may have inflamed gills.
    • Treatment: Use anti-parasitic medications and ensure good water quality.

Treatment and Preventive Measures

While treatments are available for many diseases, prevention is always preferable:

  1. Quarantine New Fish: Always quarantine new fish for 2-3 weeks before introducing them to the main tank. This helps ensure they don’t introduce diseases.
  2. Maintain Water Quality: Regularly check water parameters and change 20-25% of the water weekly or bi-weekly. A stable, clean environment drastically reduces the risk of diseases.
  3. Avoid Overfeeding: Excess food can decay, compromising water quality and leading to health issues. Feed appropriately and remove uneaten food promptly.
  4. Regular Observation: Regularly observe your fish for abnormal behaviours or physical changes. Early detection of issues can often lead to more successful treatments.
  5. Maintain Proper Tank Conditions: Ensure heaters, filters, and other equipment work correctly. Proper temperature, filtration, and aeration are vital for fish health.
  6. Use Sterilized Tools: If using any tools or equipment in multiple tanks, ensure they are sterilised to prevent cross-contamination.

Maintenance and Regular Care

Regular maintenance and diligent care are essential to ensure a healthy environment for your Pearl Gouramis. Here’s a structured guide to keeping your aquarium in optimal condition.

Cleaning Schedules

  1. Daily: Check for any noticeable debris or uneaten food and remove them to prevent them from decaying and affecting the water quality.
  2. Weekly:
    • Clean the inner walls of the aquarium using an algae scraper or a magnetic cleaner to remove any algae buildup.
    • Check and clean the filter intake and other equipment for debris or obstructions.
  3. Monthly:
    • Deep clean the substrate using a gravel vacuum to remove any waste and uneaten food that has settled.
    • Inspect all equipment, decorations, and plants for wear, damage, or disease.

Water Change Frequency and Precautions

  1. Frequency: Conduct a 20-25% water change weekly or bi-weekly, depending on the tank’s bioload. Regular water changes help in removing toxins and replenishing essential minerals.
  2. Temperature: Ensure the new water’s temperature matches the tank water to avoid shocking the fish.
  3. Conditioning: Always treat the new water with a water conditioner to neutralise chlorine and chloramines, which are harmful to fish.
  4. Salinity & pH: If your setup requires specific salinity or pH levels, ensure the new water matches these parameters.

Monitoring Equipment and Parameters

  1. Thermometer: Regularly check the temperature using a reliable aquarium thermometer. Pearl Gouramis prefer temperatures between 77°F to 82°F (25°C to 28°C).
  2. Water Testing: Use a water testing kit to monitor ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, pH, and hardness levels at least once a week. This helps in identifying potential problems early.
  3. Filter Maintenance: Per the manufacturer’s recommendations, clean or replace the filter media. A well-functioning filter is crucial for maintaining water quality.
  4. Aeration: Ensure the air pump and airstones work correctly to provide adequate oxygenation, especially if the tank is densely stocked.
  5. Lighting: Regularly check the aquarium lights and replace bulbs or tubes as needed to ensure the plants’ health (if you have live plants) and to maintain the aquarium’s aesthetics.

Consistent care and maintenance of your aquarium will ensure your Pearl Gouramis have a stable, healthy environment to thrive in. Regular monitoring will also help you catch any potential issues early on, ensuring the longevity and well-being of your aquatic pets.


Pearl Gouramis, with its iridescent shimmer and graceful movements, is undoubtedly a gem in the aquarium world. They bring a sense of tranquillity and beauty to any aquatic setting, captivating the hearts of novice and seasoned aquarists alike. Their intricate patterns and gentle nature make them a joy to observe and a favourite among many.

However, the splendour of these aquatic wonders is not without its responsibility. Dedicated care, from diet to environment, is pivotal in ensuring they survive and thrive. Every aspect of their habitat, from water quality to tank mates, requires attention and understanding. It’s a commitment to their well-being, a pledge to provide them with the best life possible in captivity.

In return, Pearl Gouramis reward their keepers with displays of natural beauty and behaviour that are truly unparalleled. The journey of keeping these fish, from understanding their needs to witnessing their life cycles, is an enriching experience. It’s a testament to the idea that our joy and fulfilment are immeasurable when we invest love and care into the world around us.

Here’s to the delight of keeping Pearl Gouramis and the countless serene moments they gift to our lives!